sIRcro General Information

Što je intervencijska radiologija?_EN

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sIRcro :: Section for Interventional Radiology



Interventional Radiology is a radiological subdiscipline providing minimally invasive treatments performed under image guidance. As technology advances and high-quality imaging equipment becomes more widely available, Interventional Radiology is able to offer patients and referral physicians a growing number of new treatment options. These procedures are typically guided by x-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound or computed tomography.  For details about the ailments treated by interventional radiologists and the corresponding procedures, please select from the list of choices on the left side of your screen or click on the links below.

Interventional radiologists are board-certified physicians who specialize in minimally invasive, targeted treatments. They offer the most in-depth knowledge of the least invasive treatments available coupled with diagnostic and clinical experience across all specialties. They use X-rays, MRI and other imaging to advance a catheter in the body, usually in an artery, to treat at the source of the disease non-surgically. As the inventors of angioplasty and the catheter-delivered stent, which were first used in the legs to treat peripheral arterial disease, interventional radiologists pioneered minimally invasive modern medicine.

Today many conditions that once required surgery can be treated nonsurgically by interventional radiologists. Interventional radiology treatments offer less risk, less pain and less recovery time compared to open surgery.

Interventional radiology is a recognized medical specialty by the American Board of Medical Specialties. Interventional radiologists are board-certified physicians with additional advanced training in minimally invasive, targeted treatments performed using imaging to guide them. Their board certification includes both Vascular and Interventional Radiology and Diagnostic Radiology which are administered by the American Board of Radiology.

Interventional Radiologists are Experts in Radiation Safety

Interventional radiologists' unique blend of skills fosters innovation and enables them to quickly adapt their imaging expertise to pioneer nonsurgical treatments that are guided by imaging. They adapt a technique proven to work for one problem and apply it to another. When it comes to the best practices for safely performing minimally invasive treatments, interventional radiologists pioneered the procedures and the standards for safety and quality. Patient safety is incorporated into the development of these advances because interventional radiology and diagnostic radiology training programs include radiation safety, radiation physics, the biological effects of radiation, and injury prevention.

The Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) publishes guidelines for minimally invasive treatments, including criteria for adequate training for specific interventional procedures, as well as expected success and complication rates. These evidence-based guidelines are used by the FDA, hospitals and regulatory groups.

Patient Choices and Informed Consent

For many years, surgery was the only treatment available for many conditions. Today, interventional radiology treatments are first-line care for a wide variety of conditions. It is important to get a second opinion and know all of your treatment options before consenting to any procedure or surgery.


1964 Angioplasty

1966 Embolization therapy to treat tumors and spinal cord vascular malformations by blocking the blood flow

1967 The Judkins technique of coronary angiography, the technique still most widely used around the world today

1967 Closure of the patent ductus arteriosis, a heart defect in newborns of a vascular opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta

1967 Selective vasoconstriction infusions for hemorrhage, now commonly used for bleeding ulcers, GI bleeding and arterial bleeding

1969 The catheter-delivered stenting technique and prototype stent

1960-74 Tools for interventions such as heparinized guidewires, contrast injector, disposable catheter needles

1970's Percutaneous removal of common bile duct stones

1970's Occlusive coils

1972 Selective arterial embolization for GI bleeding, which was adapted to treat massive bleeding in other arteries in the body and to block blood supply to tumors

1973 Embolization for pelvic trauma

1974 Selective arterial thrombolysis for arterial occlusions, now used to treat blood clots, stroke, DVT, etc.

1974 Transhepatic embolization for variceal bleeding

1977-78 Embolization technique for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and varicoceles

1977-83 Chemo-embolization for treatment of hepatocellular cancer and disseminated liver metastases

1980 Cryoablation to freeze liver tumors

1980 Development of special tools and devices for biliary manipulation

1980's Biliary stents to allow bile to flow from the liver saving patients from biliary bypass surgery

1981 Embolization technique for spleen trauma

1982 TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) to improve blood flow in damaged livers from conditions such as cirrhosis and hepatitis C

1982 Dilators for interventional urology, percutaneous removal of kidney stones

1983 The balloon-expandable stent (peripheral) used today

1985 Self-expandable stents

1990 Percutaneous extraction of gallbladder stones

1990 Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) technique for liver tumors

1990's Treatment of bone and kidney tumors by embolization

1990's RFA for soft tissue tumors, i.e., bone, breast, kidney, lung and liver cancer

1991 Abdominal aortic stent grafts

1994 The balloon-expandable coronary stent used today

1997 Intra-arterial delivery of tumor-killing viruses and gene therapy

1999 Percutaneous delivery of pancreatic islet cells to the liver for transplantation to treat diabetes

1999 Developed the endovenous laser ablation procedure to treat varicose veins and venous disease